When Silence Speaks: Russo v. Central School District No. 1
In 1969, a 21-year old art teacher in a small town in upstate New York refused to lead her homeroom in the Pledge of Allegiance. The school district fired her, and she brought a lawsuit under the First Amendment. In this historic reenactment of the trial and appeal to the Second Circuit, we explore the story of Susan Russo, whose silent refusal to pledge allegiance in the classroom -- foreshadowing current events -- raised questions about patriotism, loyalty, and the First Amendment.